This post will mainly analysis the perceptron alrorithm introcuded in the book Python Machine Leerning, whose github address is here. Actually, I will pay much attention to the code analysis step by step, not the theoretical introduction, which is easy to comprehend.

The perceptron algorithm can be summarized by the following steps:

  1. Initialize the weights to 0 or a small random numbers.
  2. For each training sample $x^{(i)}$ perform the following steps:
    1. Compute the output value $\hat{y}$.
    2. Update the weights.

perceptron (图片来自 python-machine-learning)


  1. 将权重初始化为 0 或一个很小的随机数。
  2. 对于每个训练样本 $x^{(i)}$ 执行下列操作:
    1. 计算输出值 $\hat{y}$ 。
    2. 更新权重。

这里的输出值, 就是由我们预先定义的单位阶跃函数 (unit step function) 所预测得出的类别标签。权重向量 $\mathbf{w}$ 中的每一个权重 $w_j$ 的更新公式为:

\begin{equation} w_j := w_j + \Delta w_j \end{equation}

$\Delta w_j$ 被用来更新权重 $w_j$ , 其计算公式如下:

\begin{equation} \Delta w_j = \eta \left(y^{(i)} - \hat{y}^{(i)}\right)x_j^{(i)} \end{equation}

import numpy as np

class Perceptron(object):
    """Perceptron classifier.

    eta: float
        Learning rate (between 0.0 and 1.0)
    n_iter: int
        Passes over the training dataset.
    w_: 1d-array
        Weights after fitting.
    errors_: list
        Number of misclassifications in every epoch.

    def __init__(self, eta=0.01, n_iter=10):
        self.eta = eta
        self.n_iter = n_iter

    def fit(self, X, y):
        """Fit training data.

        X: {array-like}, shape = [n_samples, n_features]
            Training vectors, where n_samples is the number of samples
            and n_features is the number of features.
        y: array-like, shape = [n_samples]
            Target values

        self: object
        self.w_ = np.zeros(1 + X.shape[1])
        self.errors_ = []

        for _ in range(self.n_iter):
            errors = 0
            for xi, target in zip(X, y):
                # 公式 2 : update = \Delta \mathbf{w}
                update = self.eta * (target - self.predict(xi))
                self.w_[1:] += update * xi
                self.w_[0] += update
                errors += int(update != 0.0)
        return self

    def net_input(self, X):
        """Calculate net input"""
        return, self.w_[1:]) + self.w_[0]

    def predict(self, X):
        """Return class label after unit step"""
        return np.where(self.net_input(X) >= 0.0, 1, -1)
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